Carbon Dioxide, Methane & Other Greenhouse Gases
The atmospheric abundance of carbon dioxide (CO2), the dominant human-produced greenhouse gas, has increased by about 50% since pre-industrial times due to the proliferation of fossil fuel combustion. Methane (CH4) is also a strong greenhouse gas; its atmospheric abundance has more than doubled since the pre-industrial era because of human activities. Other significant greenhouse gases include nitrous oxide (N2O), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6).
|Scientific Area:||Carbon cycle and other GHGs|
|ECV Steward:||Paolo Laj, Dale Hurst|
|Products:||CO2 Mole Fraction, CO2 Column Average Dry Air Mixing Ratio, CH4 Mole Fraction, CH4 Column Average Dry Air Mixing Ratio, N2O Mole Fraction|
Atmospheric CO2 at Mauna Loa
Figure: Monthly mean atmospheric carbon dioxide at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii
Source: Data are reported as a dry mole fraction defined as the number of molecules of CO2 divided by the number of molecules of dry air multiplied by one million (ppm).
ECV Products and Requirements
These products and requirements reflect the Implementation Plan 2022 (GCOS-244).
The requirements are found in the complete 2022 ECVs Requirements document as well: ECV Carbon Dioxide, Methane & Other Greenhouse Gases.
|Products||CO2 mole fraction||CO2 column average dry air mixing ratio||CH4 mole fraction||CH4 column average dry air mixing ratio||N2O mole fraction|
|Required Measurement Uncertainty (2-sigma)||G||ppm||0.1||0.6||ppb||1||7||0.05|
(*) Goal (G): an ideal requirement above which further improvements are not necessary. Breakthrough (B): an intermediate level between threshold and goal which, if achieved, would result in a significant improvement for the targeted application. The breakthrough value may also indicate the level at which specified uses within climate monitoring become possible. It may be appropriate to have different breakthrough values for different uses. Threshold (T): the minimum requirement to be met to ensure that data are useful
This list provides sources for openly accessible data sets with worldwide coverage for which metadata is available. It is curated by the respective GCOS ECV Steward(s). The list does not claim to be complete. Anyone with a suitable dataset who wishes it to be added to this list should contact the GCOS Secretariat.
- NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory Global Monitoring Division Greenhouse Gas data
- Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC)
- Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON)
- World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases (WDCGG)
- REANALYSES.ORG (Inventory for Reanalysis)
- Monitoring Atmospheric Composition & Climate (MACC), European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF)
- Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service (CAMS), European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF)
- Satellite ECV Inventory by the CEOS/CGMS Working Group on Climate (WGClimate)