Surface winds drive the exchange of momentum between the atmosphere and ocean, producing ocean waves and provides a key forcing of the ocean circulation responsible for the global transport of important amounts of heat and carbon. Extreme winds have huge social and economic impacts, most obviously during hurricanes and tropical cyclones, leading to loss of human life, damage to ecosystems, the destruction of infrastructure and loss of shipping.
Philip Jones, Elizabeth Kent
Surface Wind Speed and Direction
Surface Wind Speed Trends
Figure: Estimates of Land surface wind speed anomalies (m s−1) for 1973–2016, relative to 1981–2010: HadISD2 for the globe (excluding Australia) and 4 regions; Australia (1974–2016) is based on an Australian dataset. ERA-interim (1979–2016) and MERRA-2 (1980–2016) anomalies, also shown, cover all land areas.